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Abracadabra... The Road To Diabetes is paved with delicious Carbohydrates

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Assess The State of Health of Your Pancreas...

How To Estimate How Far You Have Already Travelled on the Road to Diabetes

A "Poor Man's Glucose Tolerance Test" and Interpretation


I will show you an easy and safe way to assess how far down the Road to Diabetes you have already travelled. Then I will give you my interpretation of what your results mean. I am not a doctor, but if the result is that I think you are diabetic, then you should listen to me and you should consult with a doctor.

To take this test you only need to have a GLUCOSE METER and test strips... (I recommend the Roche AccuCheck Sensor, which you can buy at any large pharmacy or discount merchandiser for about $75.) You must drink a LARGE (400 ml.) GLASS OF ORANGE JUICE... (despite what you might have learned before, a large glass of orange juice can be BAD for your health, as you might find out in this test.)

The following test is my version of the Glucose Tolerance Test which is used by doctors to determine if you are diabetic or not. Instead of requiring you to drink 100 grams of glucose, which I think is too much and will be BAD for your health, I will only ask you to drink 400 ml glass of ORANGE JUICE (one large glass)... this only contains 50 grams of carbohydrates, which is bad enough, but it is necessary to advance your knowledge, and you have probably consumed this much carbohydrates many times, all your life...

NOTE: If you are 6 feet tall or less, and if you are no more than 20% overweight, 50 grams of carbohydrates is enough to determine if your pancreas can bring the resulting glucose down, or not... for the purpose of determining the state of the pancreas in persons who are basically healthy or have not yet been told that they are diabetic. 50 grams of glucose in 5 liters of blood will raise glucose levels 100 points, unless your pancrease is working and insulin brings it down.... If you are very "Big" you might have up to 7 liters of blood... 50 grams of glucose in 7 liters of blood will raise glucose levels about 70 points, unless your pancreas is working and insulin brings it down.

Due to the limited nature of my version of the Glucose Tolerance Test, ("limited" because I only ask you to drink 400 grams of orange juice, which only contains 50 grams of CARBOHYDRATES) I will only show you three possible results, which I interpret for you as follows:

1. You are diabetic, and your pancreas is in bad shape.
2. You are not diabetic, but your pancreas is beat up, and you are well on the road to Diabetes. (I find myself in this group.)
3. You have a very healthy pancreas

(1) Depending upon how high your glucose level rises, and how long it takes to fall, you are already mildly or severely diabetic. You have a worn out pancreas and are already what doctors define as Diabetes Type 2, or Diabetes Type 1 (* Diabetes Type 1 can be caused by an auto-immune attack; or by a complete exhaustion of Beta Cells from high glucose levels for several years, after Diabetes Type 2, ie, it is an extreme case of Diabetes Type 2.) You are in this case if your blood Glucose rises above 140 (or 160, or 180) 60 minutes after drinking 400 ml of Orange Juice, and blood glucose does not fall below 105 for more than 2 hours... You are like ("Diabetes Type II") an airplane flying over the Atlantic with 2 engines functioning, and 2 engines conked out ("mild Diabetes Type II").. or with only one engine functioning ("severe Diabetes Type II") and 3 engines conked out... or ("Diabetes Type I") with all four engines conked out... Note: If you find out you are diabetic, you just might have made the single most important discovery concerning your health that you will ever make in your life. It will extend your life if you learn to control your blood glucose levels, by diet, exercise, and insulin (I strongly recommend that if you are not insulin resistant, it should be insulin; but most doctors think differently...)

(2) You have a slightly worn out pancreas and you are pre-diabetic, or in fact already "mildly diabetic" Glucose rises above 120 (or 140, or 160...) and falls below 105 in two hours or less... You are "Normal" but you are already well advanced on the Road to Diabetes... You are like an airplane flying over the Atlantic with 3 motors working, and one conked out...

(3) You have a very healthy pancreas. Glucose does not rise above 105... You are "Normal" and you still have a very good pancreas... You are like an airplane flying over the Atlantic, with 4 motors in good shape...

If you discover you are diabetic, you should continue to take another glucose test every hour, for another four hours, or until glucose drops below 105. (In any case, if you get any of these results, you must consult with a diabetes specialist who agrees with Dr. Richard Bernstein that a diabetic must adhere to a very strict control of blood glucose levels, through correct diet and exercise and perhaps the use of insulin...

(Not all diabetes specialists, in fact most diabetes specialists, do not agree with Dr. Bernstein on the strict control of glucose levels, or on the use of insulin... I recommend that if you are a diabetic, you should find a doctor who is a diabetic who agrees with Dr. Bernstein, and who uses insulin himself.)

According to me, there is a right way and a wrong way to eat to avoid or slow down diabetes. (It is amazing to me that most doctors say that diabetes is hereditary, and that there is not a known cause for diabetes.) According to me, we LEARN TO BE DIABETICS... Diabetes is caused by eating poorly for many years before we actually get diabetes, and is not necessarily hereditary... what is "hereditary" is that we learn to eat how our parents ate: foods that raise our glucose levels too high for too long... If our parents taught us to eat spaghetti, and rice, and bread or tortillas and cakes and cookies... and corn, and potatoes, and breakfast cereals with fruits and honey... those are the foods my parents taught me to eat, and which raised my glucose levels too high, for too long...

I ate like this until I was 56 years old. Fortunately, I have not actually gotten diabetes... After drinking 400 grams of orange juice, (or one 100 gram bun of bread... which is about the size of a Hamburger bun... or a medium sized serving of French Fries... or a plate of spaghetti... ) my glucose levels rise to about 150 or 160, and fall below 120 within two hours... so I know my pancreas is still producing insulin, but it produces it slowly because I have a high but "normal" rise of glucose.

Fortunately, I think that now I have finally learned to eat correctly because now I learned to test my glucose levels before and after most meals. I have broken the unhealthy food habits I learned from my well-intentioned but unaware mother by changing radically how I eat. Now, I am trying to teach my sons and my students how to eat correctly, to keep eat in such a way that they will keep their glucose levels from damaging their pancreas... (Of course, most of them don't listen...)

This implies that you can change the unhealthy food habits which you learned from your parents, which they in turn learned from "experts"... but you can only change them IF YOU WANT TO CHANGE THEM... diabetes does not have to be "inherited" if you learn to eat correctly, which means differently than your parents or the diet "experts" taught you to eat! DON'T BELIEVE ANYBODY... DON'T BELIEVE THE U.S.D.A. FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID... DON'T EVEN BELIEVE ME... TEST YOURSELF AFTER EATING WITH A GLUCOSE METER, AND BELIEVE WHAT THE GLUCOSE METER SHOWS YOU!!!

How far down that road to diabetes we have already travelled depends on the state of our pancreas, and very few people know how well their pancreas is working. The object of this chapter is to show you a simple way to test to see how your pancreas is working, and then you can compare your results to my interpretation of what it means.

To do this test you will need a glucose meter and test strips. (I recommend the Roche Accutrend Sensor) You will test your blood glucose after drinking a fairly large glass of ORANGE JUICE. (Note: It is not an unusually large amount of orange juice!)

Squeeze about 6 or 7 fresh oranges and pour the juice into a large glass. If you can measure with a measuring cup, you need 1 and 3/5 cup, or 400 c.c. (400 grams) of ORANGE JUICE. (this is equivalent to about 50 grams of SUGAR)

If you do not have an accurate scale, 400 grams is equal to about one 8 ounce glass, plus another 5 ounces or a little more than half of another glass. So... I am certain you have probably drunk this much orange juice many times in your life. (Imagine if you will discover that you have been damaging your body each time that you did drink this much orange juice!)
The idea behind this test is to see how long it takes for your pancreas to bring blood glucose levels down below the high end of the optimal range, (which is 105 mg/dl. as measured with a Roche AccuCheck Sensor) (note: the figure "105" is correct for the Roche AccuCheck, but it will differ with different brands of glucose meters.)

The glucose tolerance test (GTT) practiced in a doctor's office consists of drinking 100 grams of glucose solution (water with 100 grams of SUGAR) and measuring the blood glucose values every hour to get a curve. In the tests that I suggest you can take at home you will discover essentially the same information using a home glucose meter, and 400 c.c. of orange juice which is only 50 grams of Sugar (because I don't want you to "burn" your pancreas to take this test.)

Using your home glucose meter, you can take a blood test every 10 minutes, or every 30 minutes, for 2 hours... If your glucose level has not gone above 105 mg/dl after 30 minutes or 60 minutes, you can suspend the testing, because it will not go up any higher.

If your glucose level is above 120 after 2 hours, you are probably diabetic or at least pre-diabetic. You should feel glad that you have discovered this now, instead of later through side effects! It would be MUCH WORSE if you DID NOT LEARN THIS NOW !

If you have discovered that you are mildly or severely diabetic, do not panic. If you get your glucose levels under control, you can live a normal lifespan, without diabetic complications. I recommend that you should consult a diabetes specialist who agrees with Dr. Richard Bernstein that a LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIET is the correct diet for a diabetic, and that INSULIN should be considered for any type of diabetes... or you can consult with me by telephone, (011-5255 5280 3644) and I will get you on the right path. (note: I am not a medical doctor, but I can get you on the right path...)

The values obtained tell a lot about your body metabolizes sugar, and the state of the pancreas. I am going to show you how to interpret four of the most usual results so that you can have an idea of the state of your pancreas.

graph, glucose tolerance test
Glucose Tolerance Test, Normal, and Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Type I. (Graph, courtesy of Professor Michael W. King, Indiana University School of Medicine and Indiana University Center for Regenerative Biology and Medicine, Terre Haute, IN. 47809.

The FOUR ENGINES Analogy: Suppose that we are flying over the Atlantic Ocean on an airplane with FOUR ENGINES... suppose that the airplane can fly with at least ONE engine... I will compare each stage of diabetes (NORMAL YOUNG; NORMAL PRE DIABETES; MILD DIABETES; and SEVERE DIABETES) to an airplane flying over the Atlantic Ocean with 4 engines (* represents good engines, x represents broken engines)

4. "Normal" YOUNG * * ( * ) * * * * (four engines)
3. "Normal" but PRE-DIABETES * x ( * ) * * * * (three engines)
2. "MILD" DIABETES Type II * x ( * ) x * * * (two engines)
1. "SEVERE" DIABETES Type II or Type I * x ( * ) x x * * (one or zero engines)

This gives us an interesting scale, which I try to interpret for you as follows:

4 engines = 10 to 16 Very Healthy
3 engines = 5 to 9 Healthy, but beat up
2 engines = 3 or 4 Mild Diabetes
1 engines = 2 Severe Diabetes
0 engines = 1 or 0 Very Severe Diabetes Type I


FOUR ENGINES-- You are flying high and fast, Clear weather ahead, no problems are expected. Your pancreas is in very good shape. It makes plenty of insulin and keeps glucose levels within a healthy range.

Blood glucose might not rise above 110 after drinking 50 grams of SUGAR. (I have tested and found this result in young persons, up to about age 30 or 35.) The pancreas produces sufficient INSULIN to keep glucose levels below 105, so it is in EXCELLENT CONDITION.

Blood Glucose Graph, 4 Engines

Note: Tables are for 100 grams of glucose, Commented by Ellis Toussier

1a. "Normal Minimum" or "Young" curve, according to Seale Harris

Time [hours]  0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6
bGmin [mg/dl] 80 90 105 90 80 80 80 80
A "Normal-Min" curve means your pancreas is still in very good shape. Insulin release is strong and sufficient to keep glucose from rising. Keep your pancreas healthy by not stimulating much release of insulin, ie, eat low carbohydrate meals.

Pathologic conditions causing flat or depressed glucose tolerance results:

Rapid uptake of glucose by peripheral tissue results in fasting hypoglycemia. Intestinal malabsorption results in a minimal increase in serum glucose. Hypothyroidism causes a reduced rate of intestinal absorption of glucose. Low renal Tm for glucose reabsorption results in depressed glucose concentrations.


THREE ENGINES.. ("Normal-Max" or "Pre-Diabetes" Curve) Glucose goes up, but does not exceed 180 mg/dl... then glucose comes down below 105 in 120 minutes or less. (If glucose exceeds 180, you are probably already diabetic.)

Unfortunately you have already lost one engine. We know this is so, because glucose went UP instead of remaining below 105... This means you have already started on the Road to Diabetes... but you will make it to your destination without any problem if you don't lose any more of your remaining engines...

However, now that you know that you have lost one engine it makes sense that you should do everything possible to avoid losing any other engine, which would definitely not be good for your health.

Blood Glucose Graph, 3 Engines

1b. Normal Maximum curve according to Seale Harris

Time [hours]  0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6
bGmax [mg/dl] 120 135 160 130 110 100 110 105
The "Normal-Max" response means you are already well started on the road to diabetes. This is "normal" but it is not good. You are aging faster than the minimum possible. Your pancreas is still releasing enough insulin, but a large portion of your beta cells are not functioning. The stream of insulin is not as much as it was before, which is the reason why glucose is rising. You should care for the remaining beta cells by not stimulating release of insulin. To prevent the advance to diabetes, pretend that you are already a diabetic, and start to take care of yourself as if you are a diabetic.... Eat like a sane diabetic: Cut down drastically on carbohydrates!

You might even THINK of injecting insulin to take the burden off of your pancreas.


TWO ENGINES-- You are in trouble... But now that you know that you are in trouble, you should take very good care of your two remaining engines so that you won't lose another one! If you take care not to burn out another engine, you can make your two remaining engines last a long time, and they will probably get you safely to the end of the trip.

Blood Glucose Graph, 2 Engines

2. Mild Diabetes (Source: Hypoglycemia, Dr. P. Airola)

Time [hours]  0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6
bG [mg/dl] 115 145 180 160 120 130 130 130

Your pancreas is already partly shut down... perhaps 40% to 60% of your beta cells are burned out, and the stream of insulin is not enough to lower glucose quickly. Glucose levels shoot up above 180, which is too much for the kidneys to filter out, so it spills into the urine. Depending on how often, and for how long, blood glucose is above 180, there is fast or slow kidney damage. Your pancreas is working overtime to bring down glucose. For this reason you are burning beta cells at a faster rate than ever before. The quality of the insulin is not as good as before. Because insulin is present in the blood stream for long periods of time trying to bring down your glucose, plus the fact that your cells are stuffed with carbohydrates, causes you to become resistant to insulin.

ONE ENGINE OR NO ENGINES -- You are in big trouble... but you still can get out of this alive if you learn how to swim, use a parachute, etc.... but you cannot afford to make many mistakes... In order to arrive to your destination it will be very important to care for your last remaining engine. If you do not have any engines (ie, Diabetes Type I) you must be very, very, strict with your diet. Check your blood glucose levels before and after every meal, and adjust with injectible insulin whenever necessary... otherwise, high glucose levels will eventually cause very bad complications, including loss of eyesight, amputations, erectile dysfunction, strokes, micro-hemorrages, damage to the brain and the nervous system, and damage to the kidneys. READ MY FIRST 50 YEARS AS A DIABETIC by Dr. Richard Bernstein

Blood Glucose Graph, 1 Engine

Blood Glucose Graph

NOTE: Dr. Richard Bernstein has had ZERO engines for many years. Most diabetics type I born the same year he was born are already dead. Dr. Bernstein is alive because he learned to control his glucose levels very strictly. He reports that he reversed many very serious complications of diabetes, including kidney damage.

I do not recommend that you should take a glucose tolerance test, unless you must, to diagnose diabetes. You can get a very good idea of your response to glucose by testing yourself with a home glucose meter. Drink 400 ml Orange Juice. This is equivalent to ABOUT 50 grams of sugar, which is enough to give you a graph. Test yourself before eating, then 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes after eating.

Severe symptoms, including psychotic or neurotic behaviour, might occur during the traditional glucose tolerance test, but probably not with a large glass of orange juice. I feel a hand held glucometer is accurate enough to give a correct diagnosis of diabetes or hypoglycemia, but a hand held glucometer is not considered to be quite as accurate as laboratory tests on whole blood samples.

(Note: To convert the blood glucose level values in mg/dl to mmol/l, divide by 18.)


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Table of Contents | Consult with Ellis Toussier (re: Good Nutrition, Anti-Aging Therapies) | Diabetes Made Simple | The Glucose Theory of Aging | Assess Your Pancreas... | The Anti-Aging Anti-Diabetes Diet... | The Carbohydrate Thermometer | 10 Typical Glucose Tolerance Test Results | Hb-A1c to Mean Plasma Glucose Conversion Table |
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The information provided on this site is provided for illustration purposes only and does not represent a proposal or specific recommendation. As a word of caution, the information presented cannot possibly substitute for competent medical advice. My treatment of health issues is general and specific to me, and is not intended as a comprehensive discussion of all relevant issues. Your health and mine will vary to some extent, and the applicability of what you decide with your doctor will depend upon your individual circumstances. If you have a particular question about the information presented, you can send me an e-mail and I will try my best to help you.

This page created November, 2011